December 8, 2023

This analysis is part of a series of reports from our new Technology-and-innovation-pathways-for-zero-carbon-ready-buildings-by-2030 report. It provides the strategic vision from experts in the IEA Technology Collaboration Programmes on how to achieve some of the most impactful milestones short-term for the building sector outlined in IEA’s Net Zero by 2020 Roadmap. Each report’s name reflects one milestone. ReportExplore the TCPs.


In the Scenario for Net Zero Emissions By 2050 (NZE Scenario), new sales of internal combustion engines (ICEs) will cease in 2035. To stay on course, EV sales must reach about 60% by 2030. By the end of 2021, the number of electric vehicles on the roads will exceed 16.5 million. By 2030, the global electric vehicle stock will reach almost 350 million cars. Future growth depends on efforts to diversify batteries and essential mineral supplies in order to reduce risks of supply shortages and higher prices.

The mass adoption of EVs requires regulatory support to advance the installation of chargers at residential and commercial properties, as well as in workplaces. City codes and local policies will drive the deployment of charging infrastructure in urban areas with dense populations, particularly. The installation of EV charging stations in new constructions or renovations will be required by building codes and regulations, wherever possible.


Electricity in road transport has many benefits. It reduces greenhouse gas emissions and also helps to lessen the dependency on fossil fuels. The transition to more sustainable energy systems is also facilitated by it. Demand response for EV charging).

In June 2022, for example, the European Parliament voted in favor of a ban that would prohibit the sale of diesel and petrol vehicles beginning in 2035. Since EVs have the highest potential to replace ICE cars, it is necessary to increase charging infrastructure to keep up with projected demand. Buildings play a key role in supporting the organic shift to EVs by investing in charging infrastructure. Approximately 89% are located in private locations, like offices or homes, where they can be accessed easily. Urban planners, building developers, and electrical equipment providers must integrate charging infrastructure in standard building designs to make EV chargers accessible and affordable.

Current state

Charge points will be located in all types of buildings, not just single-family houses. In facilities like apartment complexes or offices, parking lots, or commercial centers, it will be important to add or increase the number of charging points. The most cost-effective and convenient option for EV users is to recharge at home or work. Electric vehicles are a great way to reduce your electricity costs. However, if you want to encourage users to use the flexibility of EVs’ electricity demands, then a time-of-use tariff or, ideally – real-time pricing is the best option. The negative impact of EV charging on grids can be minimized when distributed energy sources (such as solar and wind) are used.

Charger sales will increase in parallel with the growth of EVs. China will lead the electric vehicle market in 2021 with 3.3 million. In the analysis of the charging infrastructure, the alternate current (AC), Level 1 (L1), and Level 2 chargers (L2) are dominant technologies. L1 chargers come as standard equipment on EVs from automobile manufacturers. In some cities, L2 chargers are required in newly constructed or renovated buildings. The L1 charger is the slowest. It plugs into a 120V or 240V AC outlet. L2 chargers are available in single-phase and three-phase AC. The voltages vary depending on the region, from 120 V to either 240 V or 380 V. By 2030, it is predicted that L1 and L2 chargers will dominate the market for building EV chargers.


Many EV owners have to invest in charging infrastructure at their homes or buildings in addition to high upfront costs. Moreover, expensive grid connections in parking lots within buildings are one of the main barriers to EV adoption. The cost of enabling home or office charging would be reduced by new initiatives where chargers become building assets. Smart charging is also a potential asset, such as V2G/V2B (vehicle-to-grid/vehicle-to-buildings), and could be incorporated into new business models.

To maximize the impact of transport electrification, EVs must also be considered as a distributed resource. Batteries in cars offer the chance to increase renewable penetration by coordinating the energy supply and demand. Grid services ( V2G ) or aggregation policy can also be used to take advantage of the flexibility. The necessary regulatory adjustments and adaptations to the electricity market should accompany the new paradigms and models of business. The charging point must be integrated into the building’s energy management system to allow an EV to be designated as a distributed energy resource.

There are also challenges at the level of technology. While the L1 and L2 charging stations are expected to provide most of the energy for electric cars in the future, new technologies and challenges will be arriving.

  • The dynamic power management of charging events is necessary to manage the mass deployment of electromobility, which utilizes electric powertrain technologies, connected infrastructures, and electric propulsion for vehicles and fleets.
  • User-centric solutions are required to make charging easier for users. Identification, payment, and interoperability are essential.
  • Cars and chargers must adapt to new protocols, such as the Open Charge Point Protocol and ISO 15118 communication standards.
  • Chargers V2B or V2H that enable vehicles to be discharged into the home/building are needed. This allows for flexibility, grid services, and exploitation.
  • In the coming years, wireless charging and other charging technologies could be introduced into the market for building chargers.

The IEA TCPs cover a wide range of innovation themes.

  • Research building energy management systems to aggregate EV loads and provide flexibility services.
  • Demonstration of V2B/V2H/V2G control systems to enable their mass deployment.
  • Test and investigate new business models to reduce the total cost of ownership (TCO) for EV owners.
  • Develop interoperability standards
  • Integrate EV chargers into building codes.

The case suggests adding a table, chest, mirrors, seating, artwork, rugs that match the stair treads, or floorcloths that are easy to clean. Skibicki loves to apply faux wood panels on stairwells for texture. She says that any style additions can be a great way to express your personality.


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