The design of an automobile is based on the considerations of the manufacturer with the law and regulation and a few on the needs of their clients. A majority of manufacturers opt for used materials that are lightweight economical, safe, and recycleability.
The most important aspects of choosing a material for a body are many different features like mechanical, chemical, or thermal resistivity, efficiency in manufacturing, and durability. Steel is the primary choice for manufacturers that has all the characteristics needed. The development or improvement of the industry of steel made steel stronger, lighter and more stiff than its predecessors. Steel is not just car bodies as well as engine wheels, chassis and other components. Steel and iron are the crucial elements of the structure that are required for the majority of vehicle manufacturing and are inexpensive.
The most compelling reason to choose steel as a body material is the fact that it has the ability to absorb the energy generated by an accident.
Aluminum is used extensively for automotive manufacturing in the body and chassis. The use of aluminum could lower the weight of a vehicle. The low weight of the material its high energy absorption capacity, and its high degree of precision are its main attributes. It is resistant to corrosion, however due to its limited range of modulus, it can’t replace steel parts. Therefore, the parts must be designed to have the same strength.
The use of aluminum within the automobile industry has dramatically expanded in less time. In the automotive sector, castings made of aluminum have been utilized for cylinder heads, pistons intake manifolds, transmission, and other components. In the chassis industry, it’s employed as wheels, brake components, brackets, steering components, suspension and instruments panels. Aluminum is employed for body structure, finishing and exterior attachments like doors, crossbeams or bonnets.
The latest improvements revealed that 50% of the steel can be used to make the body white thanks to the replacement of aluminium for steel. This could lead to between 20 and 30 percent weight reduction of the vehicle.
Magnesium is yet another light-weight material that is gaining popularity ahead of aluminium in the field of automotive engineering. It is 33 percent lighter than aluminium, and 75 percent lighter than steel parts. Magnesium-based components have numerous mechanical drawbacks, which require special design to be used for automotive parts.
Magnesium has lower tensile strengths in addition to fatigue strength and creep strength when compared to Aluminium. Magnesium alloys’ modulus as well as hardness is less than aluminium, whereas their thermal expansion coefficients are higher. Since it has a low physical strength, magnesium alone can’t be used and has to be alloyed along with different components. The most popular alloying component used in applications at room temperature is the Mg-AlZn group, which comprises manganese, aluminium and zinc.
Since there is a great importance placed on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the reduction of emissions and increasing fuel efficiency is the primary goal for any automotive business. Metals that are lightweight can boost efficiency of fuel more than other aspects. Studies have shown that 10% of weight reduction could result in a 6-8 percent improvement in the use of fuel. Weight reduction can be achieved by three methods:
* Substituting elements with high precision weight with medium density materials, without reducing toughness and strength. For instance, replacing steel with magnesium, aluminum composites, foams, and composites.
Enhancing design and layout of loading equipment and attachments on the exterior to decrease their weight but not lose in strength or function.
* Optimizing the production process like reducing spot welding, and arranging it using new techniques for joining.
The primary industry-driven factor in the automotive industry is the price that decides whether any new component’s likelihood to be selected for parts of vehicles. It comprises three key economic variables: the actual cost of raw materials, the value of manufacturing as well as the cost of creating the design.
Aluminum and magnesium alloys are more expensive than cast iron and steel. Because the price is high, the decision to choose lighter elements should be based on the high-tech functionality. The high price is one of the biggest issues with the usage in the use of composite material.
Safety is a key element in the auto industry. The body components manufactured by the manufacturer and the chassis are guaranteed to pass the requirements of quality testing. Safety is an essential aspect in the automotive industry. the body components that are manufactured, as well as the chassis, are guaranteed to pass the requirements of quality testing. The two most crucial safety standards in the automobile industry that are considered are crashworthiness and resistance to penetration. More specifically, it is about the possibility of absorbing energy by controlling mechanisms and crash modes. Penetration resistance concerns the total absorption, without permitting fragments to penetrate.
The top concerns in automobile industries are the protection of resources’,’reduction carbon dioxide emissions’ and’recycling’. Europe, along with Asian countries, have rules regarding recycling. It is the United States has no issues with regards to the end-of-life of vehicles. Steel materials are easily recycled, while aluminum is expensive.