December 8, 2023

A typical “Hybrid” is an offspring of two different animals or plants, but it is important to consider what “Hybrid” is related to Automotive Technology. The US Dept. of Energy defines a hybrid as a kind of electric automobile (HEV) that blends one or more of the conversion techniques (e.g. fuel cells, heat engines generators, motors or generators) along with energy storage technology (e.g. batteries, fuel ultra capacitors, flywheels).

The hybrid electric vehicle (HEVs) are essentially the like the day to vehicle; however, it is unique in that it is equipped with the benefit of two “engines” (sources of power). Today some companies are using gasoline or diesel internal combustion “heat” engines (or ICEs), a few are using electricity-generating micro turbines, and a few are using fuel cells.

In the modern day gasoline-only cars today, the ICE has been “sized” to the vehicle to meet the demands of peak load, such as acceleration, hill climbing, etc. Although “pure” battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are thought to be pollutant-free, they do not have a longer range, quick recharge and a charge infrastructure… and the batteries weigh a lot. To overcome these limitations the lighter, more efficient hybrid electric vehicle is a viable alternative hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) uses an electric motor as an additional source of power to power the vehicle during peak load conditions.

The majority of production hybrid-electric automobiles have a tiny (~1 Liter) petrol or diesel ICE along with batteries and an electric drive motor(s). A few of the HEV diesel and gasoline engines have directly fuel infusion (into the combustion chamber). Diesel-electric hybrid transit buses are currently using small engines that emit less carbon dioxide The bus makes use of a pair propane-powered micro-turbines for the power needed.

There are two fundamental HEV configurations:

The series hybrid system that makes use of a small engine burning fuel to power a generator that generates electricity. This is then delivered through one of the electric motors that control the wheels.

The other is the parallel-hybrid system, where there are two different power pathways. The combustion of fuel (heat) engine or or the electric propulsion system or both, drive the wheels.

So, when you have Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV s) the heat engine is smaller and run at the highest effectiveness (peak-torque RPM) to drive the vehicle, and also to run the generator that charges batteries. The hybrid electric vehicle (HEVs) assist in reducing emissions and fuel consumption as well as reducing problems of weight and range. Hybrid electric cars (HEVs) assist in reducing the amount of CO2 (global warming)and global warming.

One of these companies that produces and creates Hybrid electric vehicle (HEVs) called The Protean Drive(TM) Protean Drive(TM), which is a fully connected, inside-wheel motor direct-drive option includes Protean Electric. Protean Electric’s in-wheel motor design that incorporates distributed technology revolutionizes the integration electric propulsion and propulsion assistance for mass-production vehicles.

To discuss the Protean Drive(tm) it is one of the more sophisticated in-wheel electric drive system that is suitable for hybrid plug-in hybrids, plug-in hybrids or battery electric light-duty cars, created in conjunction with Protean Electric. Wheel motors are able to significantly enhance fuel efficiency, based on the type of vehicle and driving method.

Furthermore, this distinctive and patented direct-drive system has the most powerful and highest torque intensity of any electrical propulsion device. Furthermore, it includes motor control electronics as well as Regenerative brakes in every motor assembly. The Protean Drive in-wheel motor can provide 110 HP (81kW) or 590 lb.-ft. (800Nm), yet it weighs just 31 kilos (68lbs) in weight and designed to fit in the size of an 18.2-inch wheel for road use. The design’s simplicity results in a higher energy density per motor and more simple integration with vehicles.

They are strong enough to serve as the primary driver source in many battery electric vehicles. They could also be added to the FWD or RWD vehicle or truck that has an engine driven by internal combustion to create the hybrid configuration. In hybrid vehicles the technology is developed to make it “driver selectable,” which means that the driver can choose of three operating modes three modes: the all-electric (city/stop-and-go traffic or low emission zones) and hybrid (combined with slow and constant speed) or all diesel and gas (constant rates). This allows for completely independent torque control which makes vehicles more secure.

Certain Benefits that come with Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs):

  • Provides the force and torque needed to electrify full-size cars and SUVs, without compromising performance.
  • allows full regenerative brakes while driving. It also recollects huge amounts of kinetic energy which lowers CO2 emissions of large vehicles to a lesser extent than the emissions of smaller city automobiles. It can also increase the electric range by up to 50.
  • Provides a unique modular, highly integrated motor/inverter design with a powerful and high torque density. It removes the requirement for a separate electronic power module.
  •  It is a wheel-mounted package that frees up a lot of space inside the vehicle for the passengers, load space and batteries. It also eliminates the requirement for drive shafts, transmissions and differentials.
  • allows advanced vehicle dynamics via independently “torque vectoring” torque control of each wheel.
  •  designed for high volume low-cost high-volume mass production that is automated.
  •  It comes with the reference control system software that is used for an electronic control unit centralized (ECU) that provides the essential electronic vehicle control capabilities as well as brake control

Other firms are manufacturing and developing Hybrid electric cars (HEVs) include Toyota as well as Honda. The HEVs that are manufactured by Toyota and Honda include –

Toyota Prius HEV.

Toyota’s 4 cyl. “Generation 1” hybrid seats five and is able to get around 50 miles per gallon.

Toyota Prius Underhood

Honda Insight HEV. Honda’s 3 cyl. Two seats and it gets about 70 mpg.

Honda Insight Underhood.

A American Methanol Institute report predicts that in 2020, 7 or 20% new vehicles manufactured will run on fuel cells. There will come a point where multiple motors and sources of power be available at the same time.

At present people who repair and repair the vehicles of today will have a lot of work to complete. If you’re who are trained and certified to work on hybrid vehicles, both in service as well as repair, they come with two sources of power to work with.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Advanced Automotive Technology, GM, Ford, Chrysler and the National Renewable Energy Lab are all working in concert under the President’s PNGV Initiative (Partnership to Develop a Next Generation of Cars) to create a range of vehicles that offer the same comfort and performance of the latest passenger cars and yet offering up to the same efficiency of 80 miles for every gallon.

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