April 10, 2024
The United Kingdom embarked on its journey towards Brexit, the negotiation of trade deals became a focal point of discussion and debate. Among the various models considered, Australian and Canadian-style trade agreements emerged as potential frameworks for the UK to follow. These models, shaped by the unique economic landscapes of Australia and Canada, offer insights into the possibilities and challenges that lie ahead for post-Brexit Britain. In this article, we delve into the intricacies of Australian and Canadian-style Brexit trade deals, examining their key features, advantages, and drawbacks.

Australian-Style Brexit Trade Deal:

Australia, renowned for its resource-rich economy and strong agricultural sector, boasts a trade policy characterized by liberalization and diversification. An Australian-style Brexit trade deal would prioritize bilateral agreements tailored to specific sectors rather than comprehensive free trade agreements (FTAs) like those pursued by the European Union (EU).

Sectoral Focus:

Unlike the EU’s approach of comprehensive trade agreements, Australia often negotiates deals focusing on specific sectors, such as agriculture, mining, and services. This approach allows for targeted concessions and benefits tailored to each industry’s needs.

A Brexit trade deal modeled on Australia’s approach could offer the UK flexibility to prioritize sectors of strategic importance, such as financial services, technology, and pharmaceuticals.

Tariff Reduction:

Australian-style trade deals typically involve the reduction or elimination of tariffs on key exports, promoting greater market access and competitiveness.

For the UK, reducing tariffs on agricultural products, particularly beef and lamb, could benefit both British exporters and Australian consumers, while opening avenues for increased trade in services.

Regulatory Cooperation:

Regulatory alignment and mutual recognition of standards are crucial aspects of Australian trade agreements, facilitating smoother trade flows and reducing non-tariff barriers.

Adopting a similar approach post-Brexit would require the UK to harmonize its regulatory frameworks with its trading partners, ensuring compatibility and ease of doing business.


Limited Market Access: Australian-style trade deals may not provide the same level of market access as comprehensive FTAs, potentially constraining the UK’s trade opportunities with key partners.

Sectoral Disparities: Prioritizing certain sectors over others could lead to disparities in economic benefits, necessitating careful consideration of trade-offs and balancing interests.

Canadian-Style Brexit Trade Deal:

Canada, with its diverse economy and close proximity to the United States, offers another model for post-Brexit trade arrangements. Canadian-style trade deals, exemplified by the Canada-European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), emphasize comprehensive agreements covering a wide range of sectors.

Comprehensive Coverage:

Canadian-style trade deals aim for comprehensive coverage across various sectors, including goods, services, investment, and government procurement.

For the UK, pursuing a CETA-like agreement could provide broader market access and greater regulatory coherence, enhancing trade relations with multiple partners simultaneously.

Investor Protection:

Canadian trade agreements often include provisions for investor protection and dispute resolution mechanisms, safeguarding the interests of businesses operating in foreign markets.

Incorporating similar provisions into Brexit trade deals could offer reassurance to UK investors and encourage foreign investment inflows.

Regulatory Alignment:

Like Australia, Canada prioritizes regulatory alignment and mutual recognition, facilitating trade by reducing regulatory barriers and compliance costs.

A Canadian-style approach post-Brexit would entail aligning UK regulations with those of its trading partners, promoting smoother trade flows and regulatory coherence.


Complex Negotiations: Negotiating comprehensive trade deals requires significant time and resources, with negotiations often spanning several years.

Regulatory Divergence: Maintaining regulatory autonomy while harmonizing standards with trading partners can pose challenges, particularly in highly regulated sectors such as healthcare and agriculture.

Comparative Analysis:

Both Australian and Canadian-style Brexit trade deals offer distinct advantages and face unique challenges, presenting policymakers with a complex trade-off between depth and breadth of agreements. While an Australian-style approach may offer greater flexibility and sectoral specificity, a Canadian-style agreement could provide broader market access and regulatory coherence across multiple sectors.

Flexibility vs. Depth:

Australian-style deals offer flexibility to prioritize specific sectors but may result in limited market access and regulatory coherence.

Canadian-style agreements provide depth and breadth of coverage but entail complex negotiations and regulatory alignment challenges.

Sectoral Focus vs. Comprehensive Coverage:

Australian-style agreements prioritize sectoral concessions, potentially leading to disparities in economic benefits.

Canadian-style deals offer comprehensive coverage across multiple sectors, promoting broader market access and regulatory coherence.


In navigating the post-Brexit trade landscape, the UK must carefully consider the merits and drawbacks of Australian and Canadian-style trade agreements. Whether opting for a flexible, sectoral approach akin to Australia or pursuing comprehensive agreements modeled on Canada, policymakers must strike a delicate balance between prioritizing key sectors, ensuring regulatory coherence, and maximizing market access. Ultimately, the success of post-Brexit trade deals will hinge on adept negotiation, strategic alignment of interests, and robust regulatory frameworks tailored to the UK’s evolving economic priorities.

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